Covid-19 is changing: the emerging variants involving the protein sequence of the Sars-CoV-2 Spike protein are now our fear.
But how do they act? Exscalate4CoV tries to answer this difficult question with the Spike Mutants project.
The Spike Mutants website aims to provide the scientific community with structural information on emerging variants involving the protein sequence of the Sars-CoV-2 Spike protein.
All viruses, including SARS-CoV-2, change over time. Some changes may affect the virus’s properties, such as how easily it spreads, the associated disease severity, or the performance of vaccines, therapeutic medicines, diagnostic tools, or other public health and social measures. WHO, in collaboration with partners, expert networks, national authorities, institutions and researchers have been monitoring and assessing the evolution of SARS-CoV-2 since January 2020. During late 2020, the emergence of variants that posed an increased risk to global public health prompted the characterisation of specific Variants of Interest (VOIs) and Variants of Concern (VOCs). (www.who.int).
A variant for which there is evidence of an increase in transmissibility, more severe disease (increased hospitalizations or deaths), significant reduction in neutralization by antibodies generated during previous infection or vaccination, reduced effectiveness of treatments or vaccines, or diagnostic detection failures.
Lineage: 20I/501Y.V1 (B.1.1.7 lineage)1-3
WHO Label: Alpha
Lineage: B.1.351(20H/501.V2) or 501Y.V2 (B.1.351 lineage)3-7,17
WHO Label: Beta
Lineage: P.1 (20J/501Y.V3) B.1.1.248 8-13
This variant likely arose from the Amazonas region of Brazil
WHO Label: Gamma
WHO Label: Delta
WHO Label: Omicron
A variant with specific genetic markers that have been associated with changes to receptor binding, reduced neutralization by antibodies generated against previous infection or vaccination, reduced efficacy of treatments, potential diagnostic impact, or predicted increase in transmissibility or disease severity
Lineage: B.1.429 (20C/S:452R or CAL.20C)
WHO Label: Epsilon
Lineage: P.2 (484 K.V2)11
WHO Label: Zeta
Lineage: B.1.525 (20A/S:484K)
WHO Label: Eta
WHO Label: Iota
Lineage: B.1.617.1, B.1.617.3
WHO Label: Kappa
WHO Label: -
A SARS-CoV-2 variant with genetic changes that are suspected to affect virus characteristics with some indication that it may pose a future risk, but evidence of phenotypic or epidemiological impact is currently unclear, requiring enhanced monitoring and repeat assessment pending new evidence.
WHO Label: -
(*) Provided by Istituto Spallanzani
For each country, we show the main 3D model in the colored box. In addition, we show other structures with different mutations (MUTANT) in the white boxes.
*Models built based on PDB 6VYB returned to its wild-type form and fully glycosylated,
thanks to Universitá della Tuscia, DIBAF Department,
thanks to The Department of Biotechnology of the High Institute of Biotechnology of Sidi Thabet (University of Manouba, Tunisia)
thanks to The Laboratory of Transmissible Diseases and Biological Active Substances LR99ES27, Faculty of Pharmacy (University of Monastir, Tunisia).
**Models built based on heteromer PDB 7A94 SPIKE with ACE2_HUMAN bound,
thanks to Swiss intitute of Bioinformatics.